Shot Placement for Black Bear Hunting
By Clay Newcomb
This article was in the May/June 2018 issue of Bear Hunting Magazine
After all the work of getting within shooting distance of a big bear this spring, you’ll need confidence in your ability to make a great shot. Bears are big, tough animals that are unforgiving when hit bad. Many new bear hunters carry with them shot placement and strategy derived from experience deer hunting. It’s similar, but different. Bear anatomy is slightly different, but more importantly, a bear’s body structure allows for some odd angles and considerations that the bear hunter must understand. Here are five keys to making a great shot this spring.
Go For A Double-Lung Hit (Heart shots are overrated)
Bears seem to always be moving, especially when you’re hunting them over bait. Perhaps it’s a predatory instinct in humans, but seeing our prey move makes us feel like we have to act quickly. The impulsiveness to rush the shot is probably the biggest mistake that a bear hunter can make. My favorite shot is a broadside or slightly quartering shot with the onside front shoulder forward or straight down. A broadside shot gives the most room for error and the greatest opportunity for the most lethal hit of all – a double lung shot. In my opinion, the “heart shot” is overrated. A double lung will often kill an animal quicker, it’s a larger target, and the organs are further away from big bones that stop penetration.
A bear has the body structure to put himself in all types of odd shapes. He can be sitting on his rump like a dog, or be in a “cupped” shape with his head and rump closer to you than the torso. He could be sprawled out lying on his belly. He could be standing up on two legs. All of these positions are much different than a deer. During the magic time when a bear is in shooting range, he’ll more often be in a bad-shooting position than he will be in a favorable one. You’ll need to be disciplined and wait for a broadside shot – especially the archers.
Hunting with firearms for bear is more forgiving. A high shoulder hit will drop a bear, but I’d still suggest a double lung hit. If you’ve got a big caliber gun, a frontal shot square in the sternum is deadly, but requires precision. If you’ve got the time, my advice is to wait for a broadside shot with firearm and bow.
This is the best diagram we've seen for truly understanding bear anatomy for black bear hunting. We did a neocropsy on this bear to really see where the organ were. Click this link for a video on shot placement: https://youtu.be/TQ-t6DdxChw
Bears are notoriously hard to blood trail. Long hair and fat seem to soak up blood that would usually be on the ground and used for trailing. Additionally, they often inhabit thick, dense brush making tracking conditions difficult. Whether you’re shooting a rifle or a bow, prioritize getting an entrance and exit wound. With a rifle, shoot a bullet that maximizes penetration over expansion (see side bar about bullets). When archery hunting, use a broadhead that maximizes penetration. Personally, I don’t suggest expandable broadheads for bear. However, the biggest issue will be shot placement and shot angle.
The best opportunity to get a pass-through shot is going to be when the bear is broadside. If he’s at a steep quartering angle you won’t get a pass through and you’ll be trailing a bear with single entry wound. If you’re hunting out of a treestand it will be a high wound, and will bleed very little. The bear will die quickly, but without a blood trail he might be hard to find! I almost didn’t recover the largest-skulled bear I’ve ever killed, even though he was less than 150 yards from where I shot him. A steep angled, quartering-away shot from a treestand left me with only an entry wound and no blood. Luckily, we stumbled upon the bear the next morning. If I’d waited for a broadside shot, I would likely recovered the bear within thirty minutes of the shot.
Middle of the Middle?
We published an article a few years ago titled “The Middle of the Middle.” Many Canadian outfitters have had great results instructing their clients with this descriptive phrase for shot placement. I can’t say that I disagree, but I would like to make a slight adjustment – “middle of the middle and then back towards the shoulder a few inches.” If you take the original phrase literally you’d be shooting towards the back edge of the lungs and directly at the liver. I like to aim bit closer to the shoulder without hugging it too tight. The reason for the popularity of this has to do with the greater margin of error. Also, it seems that a bear shot towards the front section of the “guts” usually dies fairly quickly. I’m not suggesting a gut shot, but it is better than a shoulder shot with archery equipment. With a rifle your margin for error is larger, but it’s still a good option for a gun.
I’ve personally done a necropsy on a bear and found the lungs to extend back to the second-to-last rib. A bear’s elongated frame translates to lungs that are slightly (and I mean slightly) further back than a deer. Many bear hunters have been indoctrinated by whitetail shot placement, and it doesn’t completely translate to bear. Aiming towards the middle-mass (from an up and down perspective) of the body cavity is important. In summary, I like to shoot about 4-5 inches back from the shoulder on a broadside bear. Bears are soft skinned and the rib bones are fairly light. The biggest threat to penetration is the front shoulder – stay away from it.
This diagram shows the middle-of-the-middle shooting philosphy. Click this link to see a video on shot placement on bear: https://youtu.be/hMuKIs4WUKM
Consider Hair and Fat: Don’t Shoot Too Low
“Low and tight” to the shoulder is a great shot on a deer. Hunters typically aim low when bowhunting deer because they drop at the sound of the shot. A bear doesn’t have the same “flight” response as a deer, so aiming extremely low isn’t necessary and can even be bad. Bears can often have a thick layer of fat on their belly, and they also have long hair. The bottom silhouette of a bear is deceptive. You’ll need to aim well above it to get into the chest cavity! I’ve witnessed multiple bears wounded because the hunter tried to “heart shoot” them like a whitetail. A deer has short hair and little fat. A bear really isn’t as big as he looks because of hair and fat. Again, this takes us back to aiming at the middle mass, not towards the periphery of the animal.
A low-hit bear will often bleed very well for a period of time, then the blood will begin to turn watery and eventually disappear. It’s easy to go on “auto-pilot” when a bear walks up. I once heard the phrase, “You won’t rise to the occasion, but you’ll default to your training.” You’ve got to intentionally train yourself where to aim on a bear.
Don’t Get “Blacked” Out
The Boone-and-Crockett-class black bear sashayed into the bait with confidence. He was only 11 yards away when I drew the bow and looked through the peep. I could see the glowing pin well, but my sight window was full of black fur! I had no idea where I was aiming. More than once while bowhunting bears at close range using riflescopes and archery sights, I’ve had this harrowing experience. The black color absorbs shadows making it difficult to distinguish lines and body parts. Through the sight window I couldn’t tell where I was aiming. The lighter fur of other game animals helps highlight the body with defining shadows – not so on a bruin.
What should you do? Be patient. Pull your eye away from the scope or peep and look at the bear with your naked eye, then look back through the aiming apparatus. After doing this a few times, you’ll get your bearings. Every time this happens I’m tempted to pull the trigger before being 100% sure where I’m aiming. It’s so close and it seems hard to miss. The only advice I have is to be patient and take an extra 10 seconds before shooting.
Bears are not hard animals to kill with a firearm or a bow. A well-hit bear won’t last long, however they are extremely unforgiving when hit marginally. In summary, only take broadside shots, prioritize getting two holes, aim about four to five inches back from the shoulder on a broadside bear, and don’t shoot too low. Finally, that bear isn’t as big as he looks. He’s got a nice layer of fat and fur coat that may be three to four inches long.